|Col. Stephen D. Lee|
|Col. James Walton|
Longstreet’s Right Wing
Colonel James Walton (1813-1885) (Louisiana) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, Right Wing; He served with the Washington Artillery in the Mexican War (1856 - 57) and by 1857 was colonel commanding the battalion. It was Walton who initiated an ill-advised artillery barrage on the Union guns of position across the Antietam near the Middle Bridge on the 16th. Vigorous Union counterbattery fire from the longer range and heavier Union guns compelled Longstreet to order Walton to call it off. On the 17th, Walton generally commanded various batteries (not all from his own battalion) in the center of the Confederate line. His own four batteries held various positions from the orchard near the Sunken Road to Snavely’s Ford on the southern end of the line. [ii]
Colonel Henry C.Cabell (1820-1899)(Virginia) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, McLaw’s Division; Before the war he commanded the Richmond Fayette Artillery (organized in 1821). When the 1st Virginia Artillery regiment was formed he was appointed lieutenant colonel. Cabell was ill during the Maryland Campaign but returned to duty on September 17th.[iii]
Major Samuel P. Hamilton (1826-1891) (Georgia) Assistant Chief of Artillery, McLaw’s Division. He commanded Company A 1stGeorgia which was organized as artillery on July 24th 1861; He was appointed a major in Cabell’s artillery battalion July 14th 1862; Major Hamilton was acting Chief of Artillery to General McLaws and deployed McLaw’s artillery on Maryland Heights on September 13th1862. Hamilton served under Colonel Cabell who sufficiently recovered from illness to return to his duties on the field at Sharpsburg on September 17th.[iv]
Major John S. Saunders (1836-1904) (Virginia) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, R.H. Anderson’s Division; USMA graduate 1858. Served in the Second U.S. Artilleryand Ordnance Department before resigning on April 21st, 1861. He served as ordnance officer in Richmond, and Chief of Artillery at Norfolk and Vicksburg before being assigned as artillery battalion commander in the Army of Northern Virginia. Saunder’s four batteries generally fought together on the Reel Ridge and Piper Farm lane area of the battlefield supporting the defense of the Sunken Road.[v]
Major Bushrod Frobel (1826-1888)(Virginia) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, John B. Hood’s Division; Frobel was a civil engineer with the U.S. Revenue Service before the War. He was first commissioned as a lieutenant, in the Confederate State Navy before joining the army as a lieutenant of artillery on October 7, 1861; He commanded the "Cockpit Point Battery" on the Potomac River. Frobel was on General Whiting's staff at the Seven Days in June 1862. He was promoted major and Chief of Artillery to General Hood July 22, 1862. Frobel’s three batteries served for much of the day along the Boonsboro Pike on a hill to the right of the turnpike road a short distance in front of Sharpsburg. [vi]
NOTE: No chiefs of artillery are identified for the divisions of John Walker and David R. Jones. Walker had two batteries at Antietam. Jones had one battery.
Jackson’s Left Wing
Colonel Stapleton Crutchfield (1835-1865) (Virginia) Chief of Artillery, Left Wing; VMI graduate in 1855 and professor with Jackson; Major in 9thVirginia and then 58th Virginia. Colonel and chief of artillery in Jackson’s Valley District. Crutchfield was not present at Sharpsburg during the battle. He remained at Harper's Ferry organizing captured guns and ammunition and arrived at Sharpsburg on the evening of the 17th. Crutchfield was killed in action at Sailor’s Creek on April 6, 1865. [vii]
Lieutenant Colonel Reuben Lindsay Walker (1827-1890) (Virginia) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, A.P. Hill’s Division; 1845 VMI graduate. In 1861 appointed commander of the Purcell Artillery. He saw action at First Bull Run, and was promoted to major on March 20th1862, and lieutenant colonel on July 3rd1862. Walker’s artillery played an important role in subduing the Federal garrison at Harpers Ferry and he brought four batteries to Antietam where they had a key role in A.P. Hill’s attack on Burnside’s Ninth Corps. [viii]
Major Alfred R. Courtney (1833-1914) (Virginia) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, Ewell’s Division; Enrolled as second lieutenant, 38th Battalion Virginia Heavy Artillery on 15 May 1861. Commissioned captain of his own battery (Courtney's Henrico (VA)) on July 8th, 1861; Courtney was convicted by court-martial (date not given) for dereliction of duty for not bringing forward more ammunition and 3 batteries of the battalion as ordered (by artillery chief Pendleton) at Sharpsburg on 16 and 17 September, and for being absent without leave for almost a month following the battle.[ix]
Major Lindsay M. Shumaker (1824?-1884) (Virginia) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, the Stonewall Division; Appointed second lieutenant of the Virginia First Regiment of Foot in 1846 as it was organized for the Mexican War. Captain Danville Artillery(VA) April 1861. Participant in the Greenbrier campaign in Western Virginia in fall of 1861; Appointed major July 5th 1862. At Antietam, Shumaker commanded several batteries of Jackson’s command that initially defended the West Woods in the early morning. Driven back by the Federal guns of position and Union First Corps artillery, these batteries regrouped on Hauser’s Ridge. According to William Poague, Shumaker was deaf.[x]
Major Francis Scipio Pierson (Louisiana) Chief of Artillery/Battalion Commander, D.H. Hill’s Division; Pierson had experience in the French artillery before the War. He enrolled as first lieutenant in the first months of the war with Company E, First Battalion Louisiana Zouaves. That unit became DeGournay’s Battery(LA); He was promoted to major on March 27th 1862; Pierson commanded D.H. Hill’s guns at Antietam but left no report. Captain Thomas Carter said that Pierson helped to organize the Confederate batteries on the Reel Ridge.[xi]
Major John Pelham (1838-1863)(Alabama) attended USMA 1856-1861. Lieutenant Alburtis Artillery in 1861; captain March 23 1862; major August 9 1863; The Stuart Horse Artillery battalion was probably still largely an administrative unit with each of the three batteries serving with a different cavalry brigade on other parts of the field. At Nicodemus Heights and later at Hauser’s Ridge, Pelham brilliantly commanded his own battery and four batteries from Jackson’s command. Pelham was killed at Kelly’s Ford on March 17, 1863 and was posthumously promoted to lieutenant colonel.[xii]
Reserve Artillery During the campaign the five battalions of the Reserve Artillery operated as a loose formation with the battalions constantly being detached from Pendleton to serve elsewhere. Pendleton served mostly as a chief of artillery for the entire army in matters of inspection and administration.
Colonel Stephen D. Lee (1833-1908)(South Carolina) Battalion Commander, Reserve Artillery; USMA graduate in 1854. Served with the Fourth U.S. Artilleryin Texas, Florida, Kansas, and the Dakotas. Resigned in 1861. ADC to Beauregard at Fort Sumter. Major November 1861, lieutenant colonel March 1862, Artillery McLaws Division April – June; Artillery Magruder’s Division – July 1862; colonel July 9 1862. His artillery battalion was attached to Longstreet’s wing. Lee’s battalion started the battle on the Dunker Church plateau and provided invaluable fire support to Jackson’s wing until it was driven from the position by the Federal guns of position across the Antietam and advancing Union infantry. His four batteries pulled back at first to the Reel Ridge and then into town where they were somewhat refitted. They then joined Confederate defenders on Cemetery Hill for the remainder of the afternoon.[xiii]
Lieutenant Colonel Allen S. Cutts (1827-1896)(Georgia) Commander Sumter (Georgia) Artillery Battalion, Reserve Artillery; Artillery private in Mexican War. Planter in Americus Georgia. Captain Sumter Flying Artillery (GA) July 6 1861; major May 22 1862; lieutenant colonel May 26 1862; During the Maryland Campaign, his battalion was left behind in the retreat from South Mountain but he managed to rejoin the army. At Antietam Cutt’s battalion primarily supported D.H. Hill;[xiv]
Major Hilary P. Jones (1833-1913)(Virginia) Battalion Commander, Reserve Artillery; lieutenant Morris Artillery (VA) (Page’s Battery at Antietam); captain February 1862; major May 28 1862; His battalion was located in the center of the Confederate line and engaged Federal batteries across the Antietam. His four batteries assisted D.H. Hill in the defense of the Piper Farm area after the Union advance to the Sunken Road.[xv]
Colonel John Thompson Brown (1835-1864)(Virginia)Commander First Virginia Light Artillery Regiment,Reserve Artillery; Second Lieutenant Second Company Richmond Howitzers; elected captain of company May 9 1861. Fought at Big Bethel June 10, 1861; Appointed major in September 1861 and a lieutenant colonel of the 1st Virginia Artillery in the spring of 1862. Promoted to colonel on June 2, 1862. Brown led the battalion in the artillery reserve of the Army of Northern Virginia in the Seven Days Battles. In the Maryland Campaign the battalion was detached on September 14th to guard Light’s Ford at Williamsport where it remained until September 19th. At the battle of the Wilderness on May 6, 1864, Brown was killed by a sharpshooter while seeking a position for the guns in his division.[xvi]
Major William Nelson (1808-1892) (Virginia) Battalion Commander, Reserve Artillery; captainHanover Light Artillery April 1861; Nelson was dropped in April 1862; at the batteries reorganization and his brother assumed command; major of artillery May 26 1862; lieutenant colonel, March 3 1863; colonel February 18th 1865; During the battle, Nelson’s battalion guarded Boteler’s Ford where it remained until the Battle of Shepherdstown.[xvii]
Lieutenant Colonel William Hays (1819-1875)(Virginia) Commander Artillery Reserve; USMA 1840; 22 year veteran of artillery service in the Second U.S. Artillery; Served in combat with Battery A, Second U.S. Artillerywith Henry Hunt in Mexico; Hays commanded the Horse Artillery Brigade in the Artillery Reserve prior to appointment to Chief of the Artillery Reserve in early September 1862. [xviii]
Lieutenant Colonel George Getty (1819-1901) (DC) Chief of Artillery Ninth Corps; USMA 1840; 22 year veteran of artillery service in the Fourth U.S. Artilleryincluding combat in Mexico. Getty commanded a brigade in the Artillery Reserve prior to appointment as Chief of Artillery of the Ninth Corps in early September 1862.
Major Francis Clarke (1820-1866) (New York) Chief of Artillery Second Corps; USMA 1840; 22-year veteran of artillery service in the Fourth U.S. Artilleryincluding command of an artillery battalion in Utah prior to the Civil War.
|Col. Stapleton Crutchfield|
|LTC Reuben L. Walker|