About Me

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I am a lifelong student of military history with particular interest in the Battle of Antietam. I work for the federal government in Washington DC and have two young adult children who I love very much. I currently volunteer at Antietam and devote much time to the study of this battle and the Maryland Campaign. I enjoy collecting notable contemporary quotations by and about the men of Antietam. Since 2013 I have been conducting in depth research on the regular artillery companies of the Union Army and their leaders. I hope to turn this into a book on this subject in the future. My perspective comes from a 28-year career in the U.S. Army. Travels took me to World War II battlefields in Europe and the Pacific where American valor ended the tyranny of Nazism and Empire. But our country faced its own greatest challenge 80 years earlier during the Civil War. And it was the critical late summer of 1862, when Robert E. Lee launched the Maryland Campaign. It is an incredible story of drama, carnage, bravery, and missed opportunities that culminated around the fields and woodlots of peaceful Sharpsburg MD. So join me as I make this journey South from the North Woods.

Thursday, April 28, 2011


I am excited to have added the 3,018th quote to my database today. Read more about the process at Antietam Voices. I have also updated the George McClellan page and you can see 272 quotes about McClellan made by him and his contemporaries. I hope to similarly update the other principal Antietam commanders and also the quotes that apply to specific areas of the fighting in the upcoming weeks. Check it out.

Monday, April 18, 2011

New Blog: Our Country's Fiery Ordeal

Check out Antietam seasonal ranger Dan Vermilya's new blog Our Country's Fiery Ordeal here. I have added Dan's blog to my list on the right.

I got to know Dan last year when he started working at the park. He is a serious student of Civil War history and of the Battle of Antietam in particular. I think you will find his perspectives interesting and instructive. I look forward to working with Dan again this summer and wish him the best on this endeavor. The picture at the left is from Dan's photo collection.

A New Book on the Battle of Antietam

Last week, the Western Maryland Interpretive Association (WMIA) published the latest in its series of books on various aspects of the Civil War in this part of Maryland. Already released are volumes on the Battle of Monocacy, and the Antietam Farmsteads. Joining these titles is the Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862.

The latest work is a collaborative work of two Antietam rangers. John Hoptak wrote the copy for the book. Keith Snyder designed the layout, maps, and charts and masterfully enhanced the photographs and drawings that grace the book.

The book is more than just a tale of the bloody events of September 17, 1862 as the title would have you believe. It is the story of the entire Maryland Campaign told from its very beginnings on September 4, 1862 when the seemingly invincible legions of the Army of the Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac, to the retreat of the battered Confederate Army and the rearguard Battle of Shepherdstown fifteen days later.

John Hoptak has already established his reputation as an authority and well-regarded author on a range of Civil War topics. His challenge here was to reduce the Maryland Campaign and the Battle of Antietam to about 60 pages of text. The remaining 20 or so pages are the excellent maps, charts, and photos.

The result is a well-crafted overview of the campaign and a more detailed survey of the battle on September 17th, 1862. The Battle of South Mountain and Confederate capture of Harper’s Ferry as well as the events of the two days leading up to the battle are addressed. John’s treatment of George McClellan is fair and balanced and thankfully devoid of much of the stereotype that we see in much of the literature of this important figure. Likewise we see the battle from the perspective of Robert E. Lee and understand his decision to stand and fight outnumbered and with his back to the Potomac.

John covers the battle in about 30 pages. We see it not as a series of unrelated events on different parts of the battlefield as it is sometimes portrayed but as a seamless weaving together of the story with a good appreciation of how it all tied in together. Lesser-known parts of the battle are included, like Lee’s planned attack in the left in the afternoon, and the September 16 twilight action in the East Woods.

Given John’s penchant for biography, we are treated to brief vignettes of the principal commanders on both sides throughout the narrative.

Keith Snyder did a tremendous job with the maps. There are six for the battle itself covering different times of the battle. The maps really enforce the fact that there was action along the entire line for the entire day. They capture key elements of terrain, contour, and movement in a way that I haven’t seen before. I have already photocopied and laminated copies and stuck them in my already bulging guide haversack. Keith created several great organization charts that distill a great amount of information; he did a wonderful job touching up the photographs and drawings providing a new level of crispness and clarity to images many of us have seen in other works. There is also interesting information on the development of the park, presidential visits to the battlefield, and much more.

Without hopefully sounding to pompous, I cannot say that there was much new that I learned about the Battle of Antietam here. But the story is faithfully and accurately told. John and Keith have reduced an immensely complicated event in our history into a readable and informative work that should have widespread appeal and excite interest in new readers young and old on the topic. They got it right.

In the days and months ahead as I take groups out on tours I will as I sometimes do, find myself at a loss for words on how to reduce a complicated concept or event to an easier to understand level. When that happens I will reach for my copy of this very good book.

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Taken at the Flood

Pardon the pun. Yesterday a powerful storm dumped around two inches of rain on the Potomac River valley. The mountain back roads that I drive over Crampton’s Gap and Red Hill enroute to the park this morning were awash in gravel and rivulets from the storm. Modern Burnside Bridge Road was closed for a time due to the high water. I was anxious to see the Antietam Creek at the Burnside Bridge. There, I shot some video of the high water passing under the bridge. The video was taken from the east (Union) side of the bridge this morning.

While there, I talked with Ranger Rory Moore who told me that lightning struck the observation tower on the Sunken Road (Richardson Avenue) melting the padlock and chain on the tower gate. The photo (left) of the lock doesn’t clearly show that but the lightning certainly fried it.

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Our line was throbbing at every point, so that I dared not call on General Lee for help

Last month, the Save Historic Antietam Foundation (SHAF) held its annual spring workday. This year, we continued to clear brush and trees from the Piper Farm Lane. The lane runs east from the Hagerstown Pike past the farm and eventually along an intermittent stream to Richardson Avenue.

As we got started, SHAF President Tom Clemens gave us a history lesson about this area. As Tom said, most people think that after D.H. Hill’s two brigades and elements of Richard Anderson’s division were driven from the Sunken Road between noon and 1PM on September 17, 1862, that no organized resistance was formed south of that line. The reality is that Tom calls this a second Sunken Road of sorts.

This area is bounded on the north by the Sunken Road, on the west by the Hagerstown Pike, and on the south by the Piper Farm Lane. From the farmhouse looking northwest, there are a number of prominent limestone rock formations that are gouged out of the farmland. Running roughly from southwest to northeast, these ledges were carved out of the land by the glaciers and are part of the same fault line that created the limestone rock ledge that I have posted about previously. They are noted on the Copes-Carmen maps to the left. Between the ground immediately behind the Sunken Road, and the Piper Lane, the terrain dips into a swale that forms the start of an intermittent stream that runs when the water is high eastward to the Antietam.

Some popular connotations are that defeated and demoralized rebel troops milled around leaderless and demoralized in this area. We are not helped by the fact that there are no reports of the battle by Confederate division-commander Richard Anderson or any of his subordinate commanders. However, if we look at the Carmen-Copes maps, we see that there are organized Confederate forces manning the Piper line. In fact, there is a lot of Confederate artillery in the area for much of the day. This post will discuss some of that Confederate artillery and in combination with maps and my photos try to paint a picture of the area around the Piper Farm that day.

In the 9:00 AM Carmen-Copes map, Weber’s brigade of French’s division is approaching the Sunken Road. Primarily, two brigades of Daniel Harvey Hill’s division defend the road. Robert Rode’s Alabama brigade is on the left, and George B. Anderson’s North Carolina brigade is on the right. In front of Rode’s brigade is Captain Robert Boyce’s (Macbeth) South Carolina Battery of Nathan Shank’s Independent Brigade. This battery consisted of six guns. The type of guns is not mentioned in the OR, Carmen, or in Johnson and Anderson’s Artillery Hell. However, in recent correspondence that I have had with Warren Scott, Ordnance Sergeant and reenactor of the modern day Macbeth Artillery in it seems likely that the guns of that battery were six-pound howitzers. Boyce reports that he spent the night of September 16th in a hollow in the rear of Cemetery hill. Colonel James B. Walton of the Washington Artillery Battalion ordered the battery to meet and check the enemy in a position north of the Keedysville Road. Boyce moved there and was placed by Colonel P.F. Stevens, of the Holcombe Legion and acting commander of Evan’s brigade in a position around the Piper Farm that Boyce found to be unsuitable for engaging the enemy. Boyce apparently moved forward at least one more time moving through a cornfield to a position shown on the 9AM Copes-Carmen map as being north of Robert Rode’s brigade. By 10:30, he was south of the Sunken Road and west of the Piper Orchard (see 10:30 AM map). Boyce reports that at Lee’s order, he engaged an enemy battery to his left at the extreme limits of range and forced it to relocate.[1] But Boyce’s saved most of his effort for the advancing Federal infantry of French and Richardson’s division. Throughout the morning, he engaged them reporting that he fired 80 rounds of canister and solid shot. D.H. Hill was an artilleryman in the Regular Army during the Mexican War and took an active role in the placement of his guns. Hill was never shy about criticizing the employment of artillery by others (calling the artillery duel on September 16 between powerful Union batteries and the Confederate Washington artillery “the most melancholy farce of the war.”)[2] But he was very complimentary of Boyce’s action “the battery moved out most gallantly...and with grape and canister drove the enemy back was instrumental in halting the Union advance from the old road which he had occupied in the morning, and occupied a cornfield and orchard in advance of it.” Longstreet too said the Union attack was met by two pieces of Captain Miller’s battery of the Washington Artillery, and two pieces of Captain Boyce’s battery and was driven back in some confusion.[3] They [Federals] had got to within a few hundred yards of the hill which commanded Sharpsburg and our rear.”[4] Boyce’s last position in the Piper Lane area (see 1:00 PM map) was at the eastern end of the lane facing the creek. Here the 18th South Carolina Infantry provided infantry support. By then, losses of men, equipment, and horses had reduced Boyce to being able to man only two guns when he was sent further south to confront Burnside’s advance. Boyce lost 4 killed, and fifteen wounded. He also lost 15 horses killed.

At 9:00 AM, the other principle Confederate artillery element in the area was Major Hilary Pollard Jones’ Artillery Battalion of the Artillery General Reserve. Interestingly, Jones’s son, Hilary Pollard Jones Jr., born in 1863 would graduate from the United States Naval Academy in 1884. A decorated naval officer in the First World War, he would serve as the Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet in the 1920s. The senior Jones’s battalion was originally constituted on June 17, 1862 and though assigned to the reserve corps, seemed to be associated frequently with D.H. Hill’s division. Artillery chief William Pendleton’s original order constituting the battalion alludes to this.[5] Jennings Cropper Wise (The Long Arm of Lee Volume 1: Bull Run to Fredericksburg) also states that this battalion was assigned to D.H. Hill.[6] Jones’s battalion consisted of four Virginia batteries and had between 14-16 guns. The Carmen-Copes maps do not break out the individual batteries. The battalion included Captain Richard C.M. Page’s (Morris “Louisa”) battery of four twelve-pound howitzers; and Captain Jefferson Peyton’s (Richmond “Orange”) battery of one 3-inch ordnance rifle, one 12-pound howitzer, and three six-pound howitzers. The battalion also included Captain Abram Wimbish’s (Long Island) battery and Captain William H. Turner’s Company D (Goochland) of Wise’s Legion). Less is known of the last two units. Harsh says that the Goochland battery was unfit to leave Virginia.[7] They had between them 5-7 guns of unknown size. Both would be consolidated with Jones other two batteries in the October 4, 1862 reorganization of the Army of Northern Virginia’s artillery.[8] Early in the morning, Jones' artillery battalion was positioned on the ridge north of Cemetery Hill facing generally toward the Antietam to contest any crossing of the middle bridge. However it was heavily engaged by Union artillery across the creek and was ordered by General Lee to a more protected position. It was around this time that Jones witnessed the famous incident where an artillery round fired by Captain Stephen Weed of Battery I, 5th U.S. Artillery clipped the front legs off of D.H. Hill’s horse while, he, Lee and Longstreet were observing the battle on the ridge north of the Boonsboro Road. Lee and Longstreet had wisely dismounted to avoid drawing fire from the Union guns.[9] Later in the morning Jones re- occupied the ridge with three batteries, two guns of R.C.M. Page's Battery was placed close to the Keedysville road, to fire to the front, in the direction of the middle bridge and the other guns so arranged that their field of fire was off to the left, and then opened fire on Richardson's Division, firing solid shot, which struck the ground in front of the column, Jones says "with wonderful effect.”

Major John Selden Saunders Artillery Battalion accompanied Richard Anderson’s division as it moved on to the field around 10AM to support D.H. Hill’s beleaguered brigades. Saunders, an 1858 graduate of West Point served as an ordnance officer at the Washington Arsenal at the start of the war when he resigned on April 22, 1861 shortly after Virginia’s secession.[10] He was the son of Commander John L. Saunders, U. S. N. and future brother in law of Lee’s adjutant general Walter Taylor. His artillery battalion was composed of Huger's Virginia battery of 4 guns, commanded by Captain Frank Huger; the Portsmouth Battery, 4 guns, commanded by Captain Carey F. Grimes; Moorman's Lynchburg Battery, 4 guns, commanded by Captain M.M. Moorman; and the Donaldsonville, Louisiana, Battery, commanded by Captain Victor Maurin. In the absence of Major John S. Saunders, the battalion was under the command of Captain Grimes. The battalion moved through Sharpsburg and up the Hagerstown road and went into position on the ridge northwest from Piper's barn. Grimes, leading his own battery, went into position about 60 yards to the right of the road; Moorman was on Grimes right and 50 yards west of the barn, and Huger and Maurin were west of the road. The four batteries opened fire on French’s division. Their fire was effective on the right of the 14th Indiana, but of no particular effect upon other parts of French’s line. Counter battery fire from Tompkins battery and the long-range guns of the Federal Artillery Reserve beyond the Antietam enfiladed Saunders guns. Musket fire from the 14th Indiana joined in and soon silenced them and they were forced to withdraw. Grimes was struck from his horse by a shot in the thigh. As his men were bearing him from the field, he was mortally wounded by a second ball that struck him in the groin. Meanwhile the other batteries had re-opened fire but were quickly silenced and withdrawn. Moorman's Battery was badly used up and retired into park two miles from the field in the direction of Shepherdstown. Grimes' Battery followed and Huger's Battery, abandoning one gun because its horses had been killed, followed Moorman and Grimes. Later in the day, troops from George T. Anderson’s brigade would discover this gun. Anderson would report "I found a 6-pounder gun, and, getting a few men to assist putting it in position, a lieutenant of infantry, whose name or regiment I do not know, served it most handsomely until the ammunition was exhausted." The officer who served it was Lieutenant William A. Chamberlaine of the 6th Virginia, of Mahone's Brigade. Chamberlaine was assisting in rallying men in the Hagerstown road, when he noticed the abandoned gun and with the aid of a few men, mostly of G.T. Anderson's Brigade, but some of the 6th Virginia, ran it up the road about 100 yards, nearly to the top of the ridge, where it opened fire upon Richardson's men, moving through the cornfield, but the exposure here was so great that, after two or three shots, it was run back to the mouth of the Piper lane. Here several shots were fired and the gun continued in action until Richardson's line fell back. A marker on the Hagerstown Pike marks the spot where Chamberlaine engaged the Federals. It is one of the very few monuments on the battle dedicated to confederate units at Antietam.

Also appearing for a time before noon was a section of Captain William K. Bachman’s (Charleston “German”) South Carolina Battery of Major Bushrod Washington Frobel’s Artillery Battalion of Hood’s Division. Bachman had two Blakeleys and four Napoleons coming into the battle.[11] Carmen reports that a section of this battery that started the day on Cemetery Hill was ordered to the left along with Miller’s battery. The battery appears on the 10:30 map in the cornfield behind the Sunken Road.

At about the noon hour, the hard-hitting Federal forces under Richardson managed to dislodge the decimated Confederate forces in the Sunken Road forcing them back on to the Piper Farm. For much of that early afternoon, the Confederate artillery was all that stood between the surging Federals and the town of Sharpsburg. Several other gallant Confederate batteries were instrumental in this defense.

One of these was Captain James William Bondurant’s (Jeff Davis) Alabama Battery of Major Scipio Francis Pierson’s Artillery Battalion of D.H. Hill’s Division. This battery had played a key role two days earlier in holding off the Ninth Corps attacks at Fox’s Gap. Once again, it was thrown into the breech along the Piper Lane. Bondurant reports only having two guns, a three-inch rifle and 12-pound howitzer, present on the line. This section appears on both the 12:00 and 1:00 PM maps along the lane behind the eastern part of the orchard.[12]

Perhaps the most famous anecdote about Longstreet’s role in the Battle of Antietam is when his staff took over two nearly abandoned guns and faced down the onrushing Federal Second Corps infantry behind the Sunken Road. As the staff load and fire the pieces, the general calmly holds the reins of their horses all the while chomping determinedly on a cigar. Longstreet’s staff is aiding Captain M.B. Miller’s Battery (3rd Company Washington Louisiana Artillery), Reserve Artillery, Longstreet’s Command. At about 9:15 a.m., this battery of 4 Napoleon guns was ordered from its position on Cemetery hill to the left to Piper's orchard to a position near the center of the orchard, and about 100 yards south of the cornfield in front. In taking position a rain of bullets came showering over it from the right, left and in front, it immediately opened fire on Richardson's advance. In a very short time two gunners and several cannoneers were wounded and Longstreet ordered the battery to cease firing and go under cover, by withdrawing a few yards down the hill. Here it remained 20 minutes, "when, the enemy again advancing, the battery again took position. Captain Miller found himself the only officer with his company, and, having barely enough men left to work a section effectively, he opened upon the enemy with his two pieces with splendid effect. After an action of half an hour he moved his section to a more advantageous position 100 yards to the front and right, placing the remaining section under Sergeant Ellis, directing him to take it completely under cover. He then continued the action until the ammunition was nearly exhausted, when Sergeant Ellis brought up one of the remaining caissons. The enemy had made two determined attempts to force our line, and had been twice signally repulsed. They were now advancing the third time, and were within canister range, when Sergeant Ellis, who had succeeded in rallying some infantry to his assistance, brought one of the guns of his section into action on Miller's left, and gave them canister, with terrible effect. The three guns succeeded in checking the enemy's advance." Longstreet was with Miller's guns at this time, and, as Miller was short handed, by reason of his loss of cannoneers, Longstreet's staff assisted in working the guns, while their chief held the horses, and directed the fire of the guns. Longstreet writes:

"Miller was short of hands and ammunition, even for two guns. (?) Our line was throbbing at every point, so that I dared not call on General Lee for help. As Richardson advanced through the corn he cut off the battery under Boyce, so that it was obliged to retire to save itself, and as Barlow came upon our center, the battery on our left was for a time thrown out of fire lest they might injure friend as well as foe. Barlow marched in steady good ranks, and the remnants before him rose to the emergency. They seemed to forget that they had known fatigue, the guns were played with life; and the brave spirits manning them claimed that they were there to hold or to go down with the guns. As our shots rattled against the armored ranks, Colonel Fairfax clapped his hands and ran for other charges. The mood of the gunners to a man was of quiet but unflinching resolve to stand to the last gun. Captain Miller charged and double-charged with spherical case and canister until his guns at the discharge leaped into the air from 10 to 12 inches."

We hear the term "artillery hell" applied to the Battle of Antietam. There were few more hellish places on the battlefield than the area behind the Sunken Road. Alexander Gardner's indelible images of that bloody lane portray the sacrifice of the Confederate infantry. But just a few yards further back, a few guns of Miller, Boyce, Grimes and others, assisted by some officers of James Longstreet's staff ultimately stopped the Federal advance against Lee's vulnerable center along the second Sunken Road.

NOTE: For additional information on the Confederate artillery units, see my accompanying fact sheet posted below.

[1] Official Records Volume 19, Part 1, page 943

[2] Official Records Volume 19, Part 1, page 1026

[3] Official Records Volume 19, Part 1, page 840

[4] Official Records Volume 19, Part I, page 1024

[5] Official Records Volume 51, Part II, page 575

[6] Wise, Jennings Cropper. The Long Arm of Lee Volume 1 Bull Run to Fredericksburg. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 (Reprinted from the 1915 edition)

[7] Harsh, Joseph. Sounding the Shallows. Kent: The Kent State University Press, 2000. 60.

[8] Official Records Volume 19, Part II, page 648, 653.

[9] Longstreet, James. “The Invasion of Maryland” in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol. 2 (New York: Century Co., 1887), 671

[10] Cullum, George W. Officers and Graduates of the Military Academy From 1802-1867. New York: James Miller, 1879. Page 469

[11] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Station Tex.: Texas A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 89.

[12] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Station Tex.: Texas A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 96.

Confederate Artillery Batteries around the Piper Farm

NOTE: This fact sheet was used for my accompanying article on Confederate Artillery posted above.

Confederate Artillery Batteries around the Piper Farm

Major Hilary Pollard Jones’ Artillery Battalion of the General Reserve of Artillery[1]

Wise (Wise 1959, p.298) gives Jones Bn. As 14 guns. But Jones stated to Carmen that his battalion consisted of 4 4 gun batteries, 1;6 guns aggregate, and 12 off., 290 EM=302 (Carmen MS, 23:35) Carmen (ibid., 24:12) gives Jones BC as 2 KIA, 15 WIA=17 TBC but he had no information on Turner’s and Wimbish’s batteries. Harsh finds little evidence that this battalion fought at Antietam, yet it is shown on the Copes maps, and is mentioned on one of the battlefield plaques. Jones did not submit a report. In the reorganization of October 1862, Jone’s takes command of D.H. Hill’s divisional artillery battalion and brings Pages and Peytons batteries with him.[2]

Pages (Morris “Louisa”) VA Battery, Capt Richard Channing Moore: 4 12 lb SB howitzers [3] Pendleton gives the battery’s armament as 2 3-in Ordnance RML, 1 12-lb. SB howitzer, and 3 6-lb. SBML, but Page states (ibid.) that Fredericksburg was the first battle in which the battery had 6 guns. Page’s BC were 2 KIA, 7 WIA=9 (Carmen MS, 24:12)[4], or 1 KIA, 7 WIA, 1 PW and 2 MIA (1KIA?)=11 (Macaluso)[5]

Peyton’s (Richmond “Orange”) VA Battery, Capt Jefferson Peyton: 1 3-in Ordnance RML, 1 12-lb. SB howitzer, 3 6-lb. SBML. Peyton’s BC were 8 WIA (Carmen MS, 24:12), or just 1 WIA[6]; Pendleton 1862.

Wimbish’s (Long Island) VA Battery, Capt Wimbish.

Turner’s (Co. D, Wise Legion Arty.) VA Battery Capt William H. Turner. Wimbish and Turner’s batts. Together had 5 or 7 guns, depending on whether the bn. Had 14 or 16 guns. Both batts. Were disbanded Oct 4, 1862 (Special Orders no. 209, ANV). According to Harsh, this battery was adjudged unfit to leave Virginia and so did not participate in the Maryland Campaign.[7]

Major John Selden Saunders Artillery Battalion of Richard Anderson’s Division.[8]

Carman (Carman MS, 23:24 gives the strength of Saunder’s Bn. As 328 aggregate and 16 guns. Evidently, this does not include Captain William H. Chapman’s (Dixie (Virginia) Battery attached to Featherston’s Bde. Harsh says there is slight evidence that the Dixie Battery was on the field. It was disbanded in October 1862.[9] BC are given as 5 KIA, 11 WIA=16 (Huger: 1 KIA, 2 WIA=3 [Porter’s History of Norfolk County]; Moorman: 1 KIA, 7 WIA=8; Grimes: 3 KIA, 2 WIA=5 [Carman MS, 24:3-4])[10].

Maurin’s (Donaldsonville) LA Battery, Capt. Victor Maurin: 2 10-lb Parrott RMS, 1 3-in. Ordnance RML, 3 6-lb. SBML. Maurin’s rpt (OR 19 (1) 848) mentions 2 10-lb. Parrott RML, 1 3-in. Ordnance RML, and an unspecified number of 6-lb SBML. Pendleton’s rpt. Agrees and gives the number of 6-lb SBML as 3. This armament is confirmed by correspondence of Eugene H. Levy with Carman (Carman MS, ltr of March 17, 1900, container 3). The battery was assigned to Pryor’s Bde. On ug. 18, 1862 (Owen 1885, p 100; see also Carman MS Levy to Carman, April 21, 1900). The battery was positioned on the right of 4 batts. Of Saunder’s Bn. “Our guns were a little to the right of the barn and in advance of R. H. Anderson’s [Division] until the division advanced through the cornfield and orchard toward the Bloody Lane” (ibid.). “Carter’s Virginia Battery came in on our left” (Carman MS, Levy to Carman, March 3, 1900). Maurin’s BC in the action near Shepherdstown (Sept 19) were 1 KIA, 2 WIA=3 (OR 19 (1),838. In Pendleton’s report, he says that his battery supported Perry’s Brigade (OR 19 (1),836. Note: Levy’s letter conflicts with Carmen’s report which in two places says this battery was ”west of” and “beyond” the Hagerstown road.[11]

Huger’s (Norfolk) VA Battery, Capt. Frank Huger; Lt. C.R. Phelps: 1 10-lb. Parrott RML, 1 3-in. Ordnance RML, 2 6-lb SBML. The battery was attached to Mahone’s Bde. (Pendleton 1862).[12] This battery was west of the Hagerstown road. Huger’s abandoned gun was found by soldiers of G.T. Anderson’s brigade and served by Lt Chamberlayne of the 6th Virginia. A marker has been placed near this position. Huger was a West Pointer, Class of 1860 who resigned on May 21, 1861. He was the son of Confederate General Benjamin Huger. He was 31st in his class and was assigned to the 10th Infantry Regiment. Huger was possibly absent from the battery at the battle.

Moorman’s (Lynchburg) VA Battery, Capt. Marcellus Newton Moorman: 2 10-lb Parrot RML, 1 UI. Moorman’s rpt (OR 19 (1), 847) states that he lost 1 10-lb Parrot RML damaged and later removed by unknown parties (probably by Alexander’s Ordnance train) during the battle (Alexander 1989). Moorman assumed command of the battalion upon the mortal wounding of Grimes. Lieutenant C.R. Phelps then assumed command of the battery. Eventually his battery would be transferred to the Horse Artillery (Harsh STS p73)

Grime’s (Portsmouth) VA Battery, Capt. Cary F. Grimes [MWIA], Lt. John N. Thompson: 1 10-lb. Parrott RMS, 2 12-lb. SB Naval Howitzers. The battery was in action near Piper’s stone barn, where Grimes was MWIA (see Thompson, SHSP 34:151-53). It was disbanded Oct 4, 1862 (OR 19 (2) 652-654. The battery also fought at Crampton’s Gap three days earlier.

Chapman’s (Monroe “Dixie”) VA Battery, Capt William Henry Chapman: 1 3-in. Ordnance RML, 1 12-lb. Napoleon SBML. Although sometimes listed as “unattached” the battery was associated with Longstreet’s command and assigned to Featherston’s Bde. On Aug. 18, 1862 (Owen 1885m o, 100; see Featherston’s rpt. of Second Manassas, OR ser 16:604; and Wise 1959, pp. 204, 257, 283). At Antietam, the battery appears to have been temporarily attached to Kershaw’s Bde. as of Sept. 7 (see Moore 1989, p. 93)[13]. On Oct 2 the battery resumed its attachment to Featherston’s Bde. (OR., ser. 28:649) It was noted as present but not engaged by Carmen. The battery Lost 1 WIA, 1 CMIA=2 at Boteler’s Ford (Moore p95). It was disbanded Oct 4, 1862 (SO 209 ANV

Washington (LA) Arty., Col. James Burdge Walton

Captain M.B. Miller’s Battery (3rd Company Washington Louisiana Artillery), Reserve Artillery, Longstreet’s Command.[14] Miller’s (3rd Co.) Capt. M. B. Miller: 4 12-lb. Napoleon SBML. BC were 2 KIA, 10 WIA, 2CMIA=14 (Richmond Daily Dispatch Sept 26,1862). A nominal list in the Charleston (SC) Daily Courier (Sept 29,1862, p.4.) gives BC of the 3rd Co. as 2 KIA, 11 WIA=13 and makes no mention of CMIA. Miller’s Co. had a caisson exploded by an enemy shell and was conspicuous in the Confederate center, suffering severely. Gen. Longstreet and members of his staff helped to man the battery at the crisis of the battle. The battery was assigned to the Reserve Arty. of Longstreet’s wing on Aug. 18, 1862 (Owen 1885, p. 100).

Captain Robert Boyce’s (Macbeth) South Carolina Battery of Nathan Shank’s Independent Brigade.[15] Capt. Robert Boyce: 6 U/I (O.R., ser. 16:639); Carmen gives 3 off., 112 EM+115 and 6 guns Carman MS, 23:28) and BC of 2 KIA, 17 WIA=19 (ibid., 24:5) BC are reported in O.R. (ser. 27:944).VX EW EWPOERWS IN O.R. The battery was assigned to Evan’s brigade on August 18, 1862 (Owen 1885, p. 100)

Captain James William Bondurant’s (Jeff Davis) Alabama Battery of Major Scipio Francis Pierson’s Artillery Battalion of D.H. Hill’s Division.[16]

Captain William K. Bachman’s (Charleston “German”) South Carolina Battery of Major Bushrod Washington Frobel’s Artillery Battalion of Hood’s Division.[17]

Name of Battery

10 pounder Parrotts

3 inch rifles

12 pounder Howitzers


6-lb S.B. guns


Pages (Jones)



Peyton (Jones)





Maurin (Saunders)w





Huger (Saunders) w





Moorman (Saunders)




Grimes (Saunders)




Miller (Walton)



Boyce (Evans SC Bde)



Bondurant (Pierson)




Bachman (Frobel)




8 Batteries east of Hagerstown Pike







2 batteries west of Hagerstown Pike







Total guns







*one unidentified gun totals 3 for Moorman, guessing a six pound howitzer; **Naval howitzers; ***Guns are unidentified but likely six pound howitzers; ****Bondurant only has two guns in action, but has three 3 inch rifles and one 12 pound howitzer; I am saying one of each; ***** Blakely guns

[1] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Stateion Tex.: Texs A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 99.

[2] Harsh, Joseph. Sounding the Shallows. Kent: The Kent State University Press, 2000. 84

[3] Page, Richard Channing Moore. 1885. Sketch of Page’s Battery, or Morris Artillery 2nd Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. New York: T. Smeltzer, 1885.

[4] Carmen, Ezra A. The Maryland Campaign of 1862. edited by Joesph Pierro. New York: Routledge, 2008, 473.

[5] Macaluso, Gregory J. Morris, Orange, and King William Artillery. Lynchburg, VA: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1991, 12.

[6] Ibid, 12

[7] Harsh, Joseph. Sounding the Shallows. Kent: The Kent State University Press, 2000. 60

[8] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Stateion Tex.: Texs A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 87.

[9] Harsh, Sounding the Shallows. 72.

[10] Carmen, Ezra A. The Maryland Campaign of 1862. edited by Joesph Pierro. New York: Routledge, 2008, 470.

[11] Carmen, 283, 297

[12] OR 19 (1). 836

[13] Moore, Robert H. The Danville, Eight Star New Market, and Dixie Artillery. Lynchburg, Va: H.E. Howard, Inc. 1989. 93

[14] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Stateion Tex.: Texs A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 90.

[15] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Stateion Tex.: Texs A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 89.

[16] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Stateion Tex.: Texs A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 96.

[17] Johnson, Curt, and Richard C. Anderson, Jr. Artillery Hell: The Employment of Artillery at Antietam. College Stateion Tex.: Texs A&M Univ. Press, 1995. 89.